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Fred Sellars15/02/2020 16:14:39
541 forum posts
219 photos

Prior to continuing with "Another reason for whiter papers", I would like to bring your attention to the text in the SG specialised volume 3 relating to papers used to print the pre-decimal Machins, it states the following in my ancient 5th edition of this catalogue :-


" Unwatermarked chalk surfaced paper was used for all values. Exceptionally, examples of all 4 panes from the £1 " stamps for Cooks " booklet and the 3d and 10d from sheets on uncoated paper "


This appears to be a bit of a fallacy, due to the fact that chalk-surfaced paper only fluoresces on the side facing upwards i.e. on the side to be printed on with the gummed side being without fluorescence, consequently, it would appear that they were printed on chalky paper, not chalk-surfaced paper, based on previous observations of the earlier commemoratives from 1960 .

The following scan gives credence to that fact . Judge for yourself !img_20200215_151650.jpg


Edited By Fred Sellars on 15/02/2020 16:18:39

Fred Sellars15/02/2020 16:43:45
541 forum posts
219 photos

As an afterthought, could it be that some of these stamps was printed on a chalk-surfaced paper with the paper reversed ? It's either one or the other !

Food for thought .

Fred Sellars16/02/2020 11:03:59
541 forum posts
219 photos

Another aspect to take into consideration regarding the pre-decimal Machins is, if these stamps were coated for the (A L F) as part of the automatic sorting system, why coat them on the rear if they are not chalky papers ?

Can anyone give an explanation to the conundrum ?

Fred Sellars19/02/2020 10:11:05
541 forum posts
219 photos

With regards to the possibility of the chalk-surfaced paper being reversed during the printing stage of the pre-decimal Machins excluding the exemptions, a previous thread posted on this forum related to a similar incident with regards to some of the the multiple crown Wildings discovered with a reversed ribbing in the laid paper due to an incorrect feed whilst applying the watermark via the dandy roll, therefore it is quite plausible that this could have happened with some of the Machins in my previous scan .

To refresh your memory of the previous thread by the name of "Multiple crown Wildings printed on reversed "laid paper"" posted on the 12th August 2019, attached is a scan of the anomaly discovered, leading me to believe that this could have happened to some of the pre-decimal Machins .

I can only suggest you draw your own conclusions on the matter !


Edited By Fred Sellars on 19/02/2020 10:25:16

Fred Sellars26/02/2020 19:33:59
541 forum posts
219 photos

After a brief distraction due to the discovery of the fluorescent regional papers and the pre decimal Machin conundrum I can now continue with .


Earlier, I spoke of the need to remove the contaminants (fluorescent fibres) caused by some of the rags supplied being high in optical brightening agents caused by the use of detergents that contained stilbene dyes .

I am of the understanding that these particular optical brightening agents can be removed chemically with the use of a process known as oxidisation which nullifies the fluorescence in the fibres with the use of chlorine dioxide or ozone, and that degradation is more susceptible in the solution phase within the embodiment .

However, by the use of this method by removing the optical brightening agents it created a more yellow (cream) type of paper with no fluorescence under longwave ultraviolet light resulting in a "dead paper" .

From my observations this appears to be the case with some of the Wilding stamp papers found, printed post 1962 .

Another aspect I need to mention is that when comparing the original cream papers produced prior to 1962 you will find that this type of paper is more opaque, whereby the papers produced since 1962 are more translucent .


Fred Sellars04/03/2020 11:35:35
541 forum posts
219 photos


The producers of the paper must have been in a bit of a predicament as was the GPO ! The water had previously been filtered in order to remove any discoloration so as to make the paper whiter than the original cream created prior to 1962, but another problem encountered with the contamination (fluorescent fibres) that had been removed chemically (oxidation) was the paper had reverted back to the original cream shade due to oxidation.

Due to this, from my observations, I believe that another method was employed to treat these contaminants, rather than removing them by chemical means it must have been decided to mask or camouflage them by using additional optical brightening agents whilst in the pulp stage of its production, thus the fluorescent paper was born .

Not only would it solve the problem but it would also give a much whiter paper in line with what the GPO required for the "ALF" part of the the automatic sorting system that was in operation. I am not privy to the information as to which optical brightening agent compound was used in order to accomplish this, it could well have been chalk or China clay, but whatever it was it appeared to satisfy all concerned in resolving both problems previously encountered.

A new type of paper had been created to resolve the problems encountered for the Wildling multiple crown issue .

TO BE CONTINUED ..........

Edited By Fred Sellars on 04/03/2020 11:36:37

Fred Sellars05/03/2020 14:06:54
541 forum posts
219 photos

img_20200305_121942.jpgANOTHER REASON FOR WHITER PAPERS ! ..........

Whether you agree with me or not, there is a distinct identifiable difference between the "normal"and the "abnormal" of which the contaminants belong ! My concern is the fact that reference to these abnormal type papers are nowhere to be seen in any stamp catalogue that I am aware of, not only are the fluorescent fibres absent in listings but also the major differences of the cream type papers discovered regarding stamps issued long after 1962.

The two scans shown are of both variations, however, with the 6d violet phosphors I am unable to discover any fluorescent papers such as the ones found on the 10d 9½mm phosphor version.

TO BE CONTINUED...........


Fred Sellars12/03/2020 10:32:24
541 forum posts
219 photos


Due to all the modifications made to the papers since 1958 when this type of watermark was first introduced, it would appear that 6 different types of paper was produced to print the Multiple Crown Wildings.

Therefore, I decided to compile a profile of the 6 variations with distinct identifiable differences that can be clearly seen in the scan.

(1) The original cream paper used to print the stamps up to the changeover date of 1962.

(2) The chalk-surfaced paper used to print commemoratives/definitives from around 1961 (2/- holiday booklets etc.)

(3) The whiter paper version from the previous cream papers, as per statement made by the GPO in 1962, the whiter papers being attributed to the water being filtered in order to remove any discolouration, which did not appear to be very successful or effective.


(4) Contaminated paper, due to some of the rag supplied being high in optical brightening agents, the contamination being in the form of fluorescent fibres in the finished paper (nicknamed FIB's).

(5) A possible oxidised paper in order to remove the contaminants by chemical means, giving a cream type paper similar to the pre 1962 creams.

(6) The fluorescent type paper with which to mask or camouflage the offending contaminants, created by using additional optical brightening agents whilst the paper was still in the pulp stage.

The first three types of paper are fairly well documented, but very little is known of the last three with the beginning of the contaminated fibres followed by the attempts to remove or camouflage them.

TO BE CONTINUED ? ...........

Fred Sellars14/03/2020 23:40:49
541 forum posts
219 photos

P. S.

May I also point out that item (5) in the compilation posted 12/3/20 are both 4d deep ultramarine with 9½mm violet phosphor bands, first issued in early 1967 .

Just for the record ! Thank you, Fred.

Fred Sellars27/03/2020 13:08:54
541 forum posts
219 photos

Here are the 3 unlisted (defined) stamp papers as previously portrayed in the previous compilation, but now with a much closer view.

(1) A whiter contaminated paper with fluorescent fibres.

(2) A cream paper (after chemical oxidation).

(3) A fluorescent paper with added OBA's in order to mask the contaminants.

According to the specialised catalogue all 3 stamps have been printed on a whiter paper, due to the fact they were printed long after 1962.

I think someone needs to go to Specsavers ! Or is it me?

Have a nice day everybody !


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